The energy sector is moving towards decentralized production and two-way, horizontal-type distribution structures. This phenomenon is known as "energy transition." In fact, the German government has coined the term "Energiewende" about the "Wende" that occurred during the reunification process and paradigm shift in the existing system.
We are witnessing major changes in energy systems. An example is more diversified energy baskets that seek to incorporate cleaner technologies and renewable resources. On the other hand, better use of energy and new ways of doing business are encouraged.
This implies a greater number of players in the market, with new ways of operating and connecting. For this purpose, information technology, communications, and management and control systems are of vital importance.
The main reason for implementing these new systems has been climate change and the generation of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is mainly responsible for the greenhouse effect and a safe and diversified energy supply. Despite considerable reserves in some countries, many studies assure that we are very close to reaching the peak of oil production and that we would be close to entering a global depletion phase.
Countries like Germany have opted to dismantle nuclear energy, and tragedies such as Fukushima in Japan support it. It has also been increasingly difficult to continue renovating and expanding the transmission network (obsolete in many countries) due to the costs, losses and inefficiencies, and environmental impacts, many of them not yet identified.
Thus, the energy paradigm change is a reality, close to some countries, more distant for others, but definitely a reality towards the year 2050.